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Thursday, November 7, 2019

Learning Psychology

Learning Psychology 

Learning Psychology

Meaning of learning

Every person collects new experiences every day, these new experiences bring changes in his behavior, thus the process of collecting new experiences and changing their behavior is learning.

The meaning of learning can be understood as follows

Psychology of learning

The learning process is a continuous and universal process. It is thus clear that learning is a change in the family by experience.



  To clarify the meaning of learning, a discussion of some definitions would be reasonable.

According to Woodworth, "the process of acquiring new knowledge and new responses is the learning process."

  In Gates's and other words, "Upgradation of behavior is learning through experience and training."

  According to Skinner, "learning is a process of progressively adapting behavior."

  According to Gilford, "any change in behavior caused by behavior is learning."

Nature of learning
Learning is a psychological process. The nature of learning is clear from the following points.

1) Learning is a change in behavior.
2) There are both learning processes and results.
3) Learning is an adjustment process.
4) Learning is a process of problem-solving.
5) Learning is a lifelong process.
6) Learning is a social and psychological process.
7) Learning is an intellectual activity.
8) Learning is a continuous process.
9) Learning is the process of developing mental abilities.
10) Learning is both positive and negative.
11) Learning is a process of development.

Learning processes

 Learning takes place in a variety of ways which are as follows.

 Learning by doing: In learning by doing, a person practices doing a task himself and as a result, he learns that work.

 Learning by observing: Under this, a person observes and learns new things.

 Learning by testing: Under test learning, a person tests himself and learns new tasks based on his experience.

 Debate method: In the debating method, the person learns while debating with other persons.

 Reading method: Under the word method, it is learned by reciting the recitation of the text.

Emulation method: In the simulation method the person learns by following the behavior of others.

 Attempt and error method: In the attempt and error method, the person tries to work through insight and learns by trying again and again.

 Complete method: In the complete method, the text is memorized by repeating the entire sequence at once.

Excerpt method: In the fraction method, different parts are memorized one by one by dividing the text into some parts according to convenience.

 Interval method: In the interval or break method, the text is memorized by repeating it repeatedly after a short time gap according to convenience.

Continuous method: In a continuous or continuous method, the text is memorized by repeating it several times in a single sitting.

Types of learning


There are 8 types of learning described by Robert M. Gayne. They are also called learning technologies. These eight types of learning are arranged in a hierarchy and the type of prior learning is a prerequisite for the latter type of learning.

1) Signal learning: This type of learning is based on the optimized response of the loop. It involves learning only by a signal. For example, traffic vehicles stop at the intersection of red lights.

2) Stimulant-response learning: This type of learning is based on Thorndike's stimulus-response principle. This learning involves learning by stimulating a response by a stimulus.

 3) Series learning: It is also called gradual learning. Learning is done by presenting the subject matter in a sequence. A series was told by Guthrie in this way - for example - the girl stripping off the coat on the floor - the mother instructing the girl to go out wearing the coat again - the girl coming in again - removing the coat and hanging it in a certain place. This series is learning.

4) Literal learning: This type of learning is related to change in lexical behavior. This type of learning involves recitation, recitation of lessons, etc.

5) Multivariate learning: In this type of learning, the creature learns to identify and respond to the correct stimuli from the various stimuli presented before him.

6) Affix learning: In learning, the creature forms suffixes based on prior experiences, training, cognitive processes. Each is a generalized thought or mental image made in relation to objects, persons, beings or events.

7) Theory learning: This type of learning involves the process of understanding various theories. A systematic and logical explanation of the procedure of conducting a process or event is called the principle.

8) Problem-solving learning: This is the best learning in learning technology. In this, a problem is presented in front of the child and through his various mental powers thinking, contemplation, reasoning, analysis, he gets the solution of the problem. It is from this type of learning that mankind progresses.


Factors affecting learning:

 The learning process is influenced by many factors in which some of the major factors are as follows -

 Pre-learning: How quickly or how well children learn depends on what they have already learned. The process of new learning does not start from zero, but from the knowledge previously acquired by the child.

 Content: The child learns simple and meaningful content more easily and easily than difficult and meaningless subject matter. If the learning material has personal use and importance for the child, then the child learns it easily.

 Physical health and maturity: Physically healthy and mature children take interest in learning so that they can learn quickly. In contrast, weak, ill children experience difficulty in learning.

 Mental Health and Maturity: Mentally healthy mature children have more ability to learn. A child with high intelligence learns these things quickly and easily. Children with mental illnesses or children with low intelligence are able to learn new things at a slow pace. Their intelligence and mental maturity have special importance in the learning of students of large classes.

 Willingness to learn: Learning depends on the willingness of the learner. If the child has a tendency to learn anything, he learns even in adverse conditions. Conversely, if a child does not want to learn anything, he cannot be taught forcefully. Therefore, before teaching children, teachers and parents should develop strong willpower in it.

 Motivation: Motivation holds the most important position in the learning process. If the child is not motivated to learn, then he is not interested in learning. Therefore, teachers should motivate children to learn before teaching. Boys are motivated to learn through appreciation and encouragement and by creating a sense of rivalry.

 Fatigue: Fatigue impedes the learning process. When tired, the child is not able to learn fully and he does not remain focused, which makes learning suspicious. In the morning, the children are full of supplies, due to which there is ease of learning in the morning. Gradually, the condition of children becomes relaxed due to which the learning speed of the boys is reduced. Therefore, the rest should be arranged while preparing the time table for the reading of children.

Environment: The environment also has an impact on the learning process. In a quiet, convenient, eye-catching, environment with proper lighting and air, the child is happily focused and learning. In contrast, the learning process of the child is slowed in a noisy, clingy and uncomfortable environment. In such an environment, the child soon starts feeling tired. Parents, teachers, and principals should try to create an environment conducive to learning in the classroom, inside the school.

Learning principles


The learning process is carried out according to certain principles. Learning principles are broadly divided into two classes.

Learning principles
Thorndike's Relativism:

  This theory was formulated by the American psychologist Edward L. Thorndike in his 1913 book Educational Psychology. This theory is also known by some names. Which is as follows -

Stimulus-response theory
Learning theory
Theory of effort and error or effort and error
Conjunctive

According to this theory, when a person learns a task, then he has a special position or stimulus in front of him, then motivates him to do a particular type of work. In this way, a particular stimulus is established with a particular response. This is relationism.

Thorndike did his experiment on a hungry cat. The hungry cat was locked in a special box puzzle box and food was kept outside the box. To come out of the box, there was a liver in the box which, upon pressing, could open the box door. Being hungry, the cat jumped into the box, Use tricked the liver into the trick and the cat came out and got the food. Thorndike repeated this experiment repeatedly and noticed that each time the cat took less time than the previous one to come out, and after some time the cat opened the box door in a single attempt. That is, a permanent bond is formed in the stimulus and response.

Rules of Thorndike
Law of readiness
Rule of practice
Law of effect





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