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Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Child Development Stages

Child Development Stages

Child Development Stages
Child Development 

Child Development: Concept of growth development, various dimensions and principles of development, elements affecting development and their relation to learning.


The process of development of the child starts before birth when he comes in the mother's womb and continues after birth until infancy, childhood, adolescence.

With development, a suffix of accretion is also associated, both are used in the same sense, confusing but there is a substantial difference between the two.

Meaning of accretion: In general, the term accretion is used for cellular growth. From conception to infancy, childhood, adolescence, the changes in size, length, weight etc. of different parts of a person are enhanced.


For example, the growth of the extremities is the growth of the torso, but their combined form is called physical development.

The following table shows the difference between growth and development.
Child Development & Different Dimensions of Child Development

Principles of growth and development:

1.) Principle of Sustainable Development: According to this theory, the process of development continues uninterrupted continuously.

2.) Principle of development direction: According to this theory, the direction of development of a child is from head to foot, it is called Mastakodhamukhi development. It is also called peripheral development from the center.

3.) Principle of common pattern: This theory says that all beings of a race develop according to the same pattern.

  Example: In every corner of the world, the development of a human baby is in the same pattern.

4.) Principle of Integration: According to this theory, the child first operates the whole organ and then the sub organs of that organ then operate the two together by integrating the two.

5.) Principle of reciprocal relation: This theory states that all forms of development are related, if one type of development is good, the remaining development is also good and one type of development deteriorates. If physical development is good, mental development is good and mental development is good for emotional development and emotional development is good for social development.

6.) Theory of development sequence: According to this theory, language development and some of the rural development take place in a certain order.

  Example: In language development, the child listens first, then speaks, then reads and then writes, this sequence is abbreviated as L-S-R-W.

7.) Principle of general and specific actions: According to this theory, in the process of development, the child first performs normal actions and then performs special actions.

Example: The child first turns, sits, walks on his knees, stands and then walks.

8.) Principle of Inheritance and Interaction of Environment: This theory states that human development can happen not only by inheritance nor by the environment only. Rather, human development is the result of inheritance and interaction of the environment.

9.) Principle of individualism: This theory suggests that the speed of development varies from person to person. In other words, it can be said that each person develops his or her own pace in different areas.

  Jaisal wrote that the spread of personal differences is as much as mankind itself.

10.) Theory of circular progress: According to this theory, development takes place in a circular manner rather than at a linear speed and constant rate. In other words, such opportunities come up during the development process while the development process of that region almost comes to a halt in order to adjust the previously acquired status of development in a particular region. After some period the pace of development in that area increases again.

Stages of development

Different psychologists have told different stages of development which is as follows.

These stages of child development are considered in Hindu scriptures.

1) Before birth - Pregnancy
2) From birth to age 6 - infancy
3) 6 to 12 years - childhood
4) 12 to 18 years - virginity state

Ross has given the sequence of development of children in this way.

1) 1 to 3 years - infancy stage
2) 3 to 6 years - pre-childhood
3) 6 to 12 years - North childhood
4) 12 to 18 years - adolescence

Different psychologists have given different stages of development in different ways, but from the academic point of view, the common classifications are as follows.

1) From birth to 5 or 6 years - infancy
2) 5 or 6 years to 12 years - childhood
3) 13 to 18 years - adolescence
4) Over 19 - maturity

Infancy

The first stage of development after birth is called infancy. Childhood is the most important period of life.

 Different psychologists have given different statements regarding infancy which are as follows.

 According to Freud, "Whatever a man has to become becomes one in four to five years."

According to Goodenough, "Whatever mental development a person has, he/she reaches half the age of 3".

According to Strang, "In the first 2 years of life, the child lays the foundation for his future life."

 According to Newman, "The condition up to 5 years is very receptive to body and brain."

 According to Thorndike, "Children from 3 to 6 years of age often live in the direction of half-dreams."

 According to Valentin, "infancy is the ideal period of learning."

 According to Watson, "The extent and intensity of learning in infancy is much greater than in any other stage of development."

According to Dryden, "First we build our habits and then our habits build ours."

According to Rousseau, "The child's hands, feet, and eyes are his early teachers. By this, he can recognize, think and remember in 5 years."

According to Crowe and Crowe, "the twentieth century is the child's century."

 According to Adler, "Only a few months after the birth of a child, it can be determined what is his place in life."

Each stage of development has its own characteristics and on the basis of these characteristics, its education is arranged. The following are the characteristics of childhood and education system.

Major Features

Physical development intensity
The intensity in mental abilities
Learning intensity
Tendency to repeat
Curiosity
Dependence on others
Sense of self
Lack of moral qualities
Nature of work
Fantasy life
Display of momentum
Behavior-based on instincts
Simulation learning
Social development

System of Education

Suitable environment
Curiosity satisfaction
Opportunities for mental activity
Development of inherent qualities
Development of self-reliance
Opportunity to self-demonstrate
Build good habits
Education of various organs
Knowledge of reality
Education through pictures and stories
Promotion of core trends
Education by action
Sports education

Childhood

Childhood begins after the end of infancy. Childhood is the golden period of human life in which all-round development takes place. Childhood is a state of personality building.

Statement related to childhood

Blair, Johns, and Simpson: "Childhood is the period when one's basic attitudes, values, and ideals are represented to a large extent."

According to Stang, "The child finds himself in a vast world and wants to get information about it as quickly as possible."

Salient features of childhood:

Stability in physical and mental development
Increase in mental ability
Intensity of curiosity
Work instinct
Connection to the real world
Enjoy creative work
The predominance of the collective tendency
Change of interests
Purpose travel
Collection trend
Suppression and performance of momentum
Development of moral qualities
Extroverted personality development
Development of social qualities

Education System

Emphasis on language knowledge
Choose the appropriate subjects
Interesting content
Changes in curriculum and teaching method
Curiosity satisfaction
Arrangement of creative works
Collective trend satisfaction
Arrangement of text concomitant verbs
Tourism and Scouting
Accumulation trend stimulus
Opportunity to display momentum
moral education
Education through action and sports
Education-based on love and empathy

Adolescence :
 
Adolescence is the English synonym for adolescence, derived from the Latin word Adolescence (adele sire), meaning maturity or fertility.

 Adolescence begins at the end of childhood and ends at the beginning of adulthood. It is also called the spring of life. This stage of development is also known as the period between childhood and adulthood.


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